Among indoor plants there are not so many ferns, and their popular species can be counted literally on the fingers of one hand. But few ferns have such impressive beauty and character as one of the rarest species of these ancient plants - phanerophlebia, or Tsirtomium. This fern is so rare that it is considered almost the least adapted species for room culture. Such a reputation is all the more unfair because the elegant and majestic cirtomy is absolutely undemanding in temperature, lighting and even care.
It is difficult to understand why phanerophlebia has not become a popular and widespread species. Just one look at the beauty of the wai of this fern is enough, not to mention the study of its modest requirements for conditions in order to love this plant forever.
Decorative, with a rich color, magnificent and not so bulky, phanerophlebia and alone can create a feeling of a forest oasis, without losing its classical rigor. And although today the plant was transferred to the genus Tsirtomium, the synonym name “phanerophlebia” is still more common than the official botanical name.
And it is not surprising: after all, cytomyomas are ferns, more associated with cultivation in open soil, while in room culture only one type of former phanerophlebia is used.
Tsirtomiums are highly decorative ferns representing the Shchitovnikov family. This plant is found in nature only in the tropics, where its beauty seems to have been created by mother nature in order to bring islands of calm and visual order into a colorful collection of plants.
In room culture, old phanerophlebias were represented by several species, but in addition to exclusive collections of collectors, one could always speak of the dominance of only one of the species - sickle-shaped cirthium , or, as it is still called, sickle-shapedphanerophlebia (Cyrtomium falcatum) . Folk names vividly testify to the main advantages of a fern: they like to call it “sacred fern”, “holly” and “holly”.
Phanerophlebia-cirtomyomas are powerful ferns, but not giant ones. Young plants develop slowly, adults grow several wai per year. Thin soruses and petioles give the plant grace and emphasize large fragments of leaves even more. Spectacular waiyi on strong petioles covered with brown scales almost at the base look elegant and almost ornamental.
The maximum length of the leaves is up to 1 m, and even then together with the petiole base, but in room culture, the cirthium is most often limited to half a meter length of the leaves. Cirrus leaves are emblazoned with crescent lobes, with a fine-toothed edge and a strongly pointed tip, which seem expressive and large, emphasize the ornamental and symmetry of the structure. Leathery leaves with a very rich dark green color conquer their glossy sheen and, when well taken care of, seem almost artificial - they look so flawless.
Home care for cirthium
Tsirtomiums are rightly ranked among the most unpretentious indoor ferns. With them you can safely begin acquaintance with these ancient plants: they are so adaptive that they will not cause difficulties even for inexperienced gardeners. Perfectly adapting to a wide variety of lighting, temperatures and rooms, cirtomyums pleasantly surprise with tolerance for misses in care and ease of reproduction.
Lighting for phanerophlebia
This is one of the indoor plants that can grow literally in any light. He does not like the cytomium of only one thing - direct sunlight. But in bright light, and in partial shade, and in the shade, he will look luxurious, provided that he is well looked after. The optimal location for phanerophlebia is considered to be the northern window sills, but only the options are not limited to them. Tsirtomium-phanerophlebia can grow in rooms without windows, if it is provided with at least minimal artificial illumination.
This fern opens up new possibilities in interior decoration, since only aesthetic tasks can be set for yourself, forgetting about the strict restriction on lighting.
The only requirements that phanerophlebia makes to air temperature are stability. This fern does not like sudden changes in conditions, but can adapt to any temperature - and to ordinary residential, and to hot, and to cold rooms. The minimum allowable temperature is 13 degrees.
Tsirtomiumy should be protected from drafts, the proximity of heating appliances and air conditioners.
Irrigation of cytomiums and humidity
Phanerophlebia, even in comparison with their indoor relatives, is distinguished by increased hydrophilicity. But unlike most other indoor ferns, their requirements do not relate to air humidity, but solely to the humidity of the substrate.
Tsirtomiums are watered often and plentifully. Even slight drying of the soil will affect the attractiveness of the leaves. Water stagnation, waterlogging should not be allowed, but only the topmost layer of soil should dry out between irrigations. The stable humidity of the earthen coma is the main guarantee of decorative fern regardless of the time of year. Watering in winter is reduced, focusing only on changes in the rate of drying out of the soil.
It is desirable to maintain a high humidity for phanerophlebia. The higher the air temperature, the more intensively you need to spray. But unlike many other indoor ferns, this species is not afraid of a drier environment, average indicators, does not require the installation of humidifiers and can be content only with spraying. Tsirtomium feels great in the kitchen and bathroom, in rooms with high or fluctuating humidity. In such a place, there is no need to even spray it.
Nutritional supplements for cirthium
Fertilizer phanerophlebias will be needed only during the stage of active development.
This fern is very fond of organic fertilizers, and if you have the opportunity, then you can alternate traditional dressings with complex mineral fertilizers with the introduction of organics.
Fertilizing is carried out with a frequency of 1 time per month or standard, halved in concentration doses.
Cirtomyum transplant and substrate
Phanerophlebia is not afraid of transplants and adapts well in new soil. Fern can be transplanted annually, but it is better to change the capacity only as necessary, when the roots appear from the drainage holes. For adult plants, transplantation can not be carried out, limiting itself to changing the topsoil.
Unlike lighting or temperature, phanerophlebia is very demanding on soils. Only a special fern mixture for ferns or similar substrates with high peat content is suitable for them. Adding peat to a universal substrate, you can get a fairly comfortable environment for this fern in reaction and texture. If there is no other option, cirtomyum can be grown in pure peat. The optimal soil reaction is 5.0-6.0.
The main secret of transplantation of a cirtomyum is a careful examination of the roots and the removal of damaged segments. Due to the high soil moisture, phanerophlebia often suffers from rot, and there is a high risk of partial damage to small roots. "Cleansing" the rhizome before changing the tank can prevent these problems and maintain the fern in a healthy state. The roots need to be handled carefully, they are very easily injured and cracked. When transplanting, you need to ensure that the root neck is not immersed in the soil.
Diseases and pests of cirthomiums
Phanerophlebia is most often affected by scale insects, other pests are extremely rare on these ferns.
Common problems in the cultivation of cirthomiums:
drying and wilting of leaves in too dry air with improper watering;
stunting with scarce top dressing;
the appearance of brown spots, yellowing of the lower leaves during waterlogging;
yellowing of the leaves and drying of the tips of the wai in very dry air or with other disorders of care.
Reproduction of cirthium
Unlike some indoor ferns that are sensitive to transplants and separation, phanerophlebia provides much more breeding options.
The easiest way to increase the collection of cirthomiums is to divide the plants during transplantation.
You can get this fern from spores. Tsirtomium often gives himself self-seeding both in his pot and in the containers of neighboring plants. After drying, the spores easily germinate in a light peat mixture with surface sowing and high humidity under a film or glass and with lower heating.