Clivia is an old favorite of flower growers who, with normal care, will bloom beautifully from year to year. This is a very unpretentious flowering plant for windows located east and west.
Description of Clivia
Clivia blooms every year if it is properly watered and not left for the winter in a warm room. She needs a lot of space, and in winter it is necessary to provide a rest period in a cool room with very limited watering. Clivia does not like to be bothered - they touch her once again and rearrange them from place to place. Clivia is a very long-lived plant, under appropriate conditions, lives up to 40 years. Old plants growing in tubs are not transplanted, but only fertilized with fertilizers. The best specimens from old plants form up to 40-50 peduncles.
The leaves of the plant, the decorativeness of which can decorate your interior even without flowering, are collected in a basal rosette and arranged in a kind of fan. Bright cheerful orange inflorescences of clivia, shaded by shiny dark green foliage, are unusually beautiful. Clivia blooms in the winter. Currently, various varieties of clivia have been bred: from light ocher to dark red color of flowers with the whole gamut of warm orange and yellow tones.
Clivia ( Clivia ) is a genus of perennial evergreen herbaceous plants of the Amaryllidaceae family . The nerd John Lindley gave the name to the family in honor of the Duchess of Northumberland Charlotte Clive, governess of the future Queen of Great Britain Victoria. The genus Clivia ( Clivia ) includes approximately five species of plants of the amaryllis family.
Clivia is an evergreen perennial herb, stemless, multi-flowered. The leaves are vaginal, tightly enclosing each other, forming a false stem, linear or xiphoid. Under the ground, clivia develops a rhizome, to which thickened bases of the leaves and the leaves themselves are attached. Clivia is located, as it were, in the middle between bulbous and rhizome plants. The flowers are bell-shaped, red or orange, collected in an umbrella.
One of the most common is Clivia cinnabar ( Clivia miniata - lat. Miniatus - painted with cinnabar, covered with red paint from lat. Minium - cinnabar or minium). In the greenhouse and indoor culture, it is used as a flower- and deciduous-decorative potted plant. The birthplace of the plant is South Africa.
It is found in the literature under Russian names: orange clivia (dull red, red-flowered, red-flowered), or kaffir (Cape).
Features of growing clivia at home
Temperature : Moderate. In winter, the rest period at a temperature of no higher than +15 ° C.
Lighting : A bright place with shading from direct sunlight in the summer. Clivia feels good in the summer in the fresh air in a shaded place.
Watering clivia : Pretty plentiful from spring to fall. Moderate and cautious from late autumn until the flower stalk reaches a height of 10-15 cm. In winter, instead of a watering can, you can use a sprayer that will provide the necessary moisture to the ground and moisten the leaves, but only if clivia is kept in a cool room. If the room is about 20 ° C, then water more.
Fertilizer for clivia : During the period of active growth, every two weeks they are fed with a special fertilizer for flowering indoor plants.
Humidity : From time to time, the leaves are wiped with a sponge, periodically sprayed.
Clivia transplant : Soil - 2 parts of turf, 1 part of leaf, 1 part of humus, 1 part of peat land and 1 part of sand. If necessary, after flowering, only when the roots begin to crawl out of the pot.
Clivia propagation : By division by transplant or by seed. Seeds are harvested 2-3 months after flowering and freshly sown in the ground. Shoots appear in a month, but clivia will bloom during seed reproduction only after 4-5 years.
Bright diffused light is suitable for clivia, the plant is shaded from the direct sun. Suitable for placement at the windows of the western and eastern exposition. At the windows of the southern exposure should provide the plant shading from direct sunlight. On the north window, with a lack of lighting, clivia grows more slowly and may not bloom. The plant can spend summer outdoors in partial shade.
The optimum temperature for clivia in the spring and summer is in the region of +20 .. +25 ° C, from October the temperature is reduced to +12 .. +14 ° C, when the plant begins to produce a peduncle, the temperature is increased to +18 .. +20 ° C. Clivia can put up with high temperatures during dormancy, but this does not affect well the plant and its subsequent flowering.
The plant needs watering with soft, settled water. Between watering, it is better to let the earth dry slightly. Do not allow water to remain in the pan. During dormancy, the plant is not watered or watered only if the plant has begun to drop leaves. When the buds are tied up on the peduncle, clivia is watered more abundantly, and only with warm water.
Humidity does not play a significant role for clivia. In summer, from time to time, the leaves of clivia should be wiped with a damp sponge or cloth and sprayed.
Clivia responds positively to fertilizer application. From the first year of culture, starting from the first dive, annually from spring to August, liquid organic and full mineral fertilizer is applied (2 g per 1 liter of water), every 2 weeks, alternately.
How to achieve regular flowering of clivia?
To achieve regular flowering, it is necessary to provide clivia a dormant period. For young plants, it should last two months starting from October-November. The larger the plant, the longer the rest. Since September, watering is completely stopped. However, make sure that the plants do not start dropping leaves. Then clivia should be slightly watered.
With the advent of the flower arrow, clivia is transferred to a warm place, watering is more frequent and fertilized. But at the same time, one must remember that clivia can be transferred to heat and abundantly watered only when the arrow grows to 10-15 cm.
Clivia does not tolerate anxiety: do not rearrange the pot during the setting of buds or flowering. After any movements, the pot with the plant should be placed in the previous direction of growth, this can prevent leaf falling. During the growing season, the plant can form 5-10 new leaves.
Clivia blooms most often begin in February. Under normal conditions, the flowering period of an individual specimen can stretch up to 3-4 weeks, since the flowers in the inflorescence bloom gradually. One peduncle can have up to 30 flowers. If you apply artificial pollination, you can get large fruits with seeds: first green, and then, after almost a year, orange-red. They also adorn the plant. However, fruiting greatly depletes clivia, and without the need to preserve the fruit on the plant, it is impractical; it is better to cut the ovaries. But if you still want to collect the seeds, then the fruits should ripen and become soft.
If space permits, a very large specimen can be grown. To do this, you simply do not need to divide the plant, remove offspring, and then it will develop into a huge bunch of foliage.
The clivia transplant is carried out as rarely as possible: do not transplant the plant until the roots begin to crawl out of the pot. Usually, adult plants transship after flowering once every 2-3 years, young plants annually. Clivia roots do not tolerate transplantation. They are juicy, fleshy, serve as a reservoir of water and nutrients. Broken roots can easily rot, especially with excessive watering - when transplanting, treat damaged roots with crushed coal or ash. In those years when clivia is not transplanted, at the end of winter it is necessary to carefully remove the topsoil (approximately 5 cm) in the pot, replacing it with fresh earthen mixture.
Clivia pots are small so that the plants barely fit, then they bloom more abundantly and longer. Clivia needs loose, slightly acidic (pH about 6) soil from turfy soil (2 parts), humus (1 part) and peat (1 part). Not bad clivia will apply to any other loose weakly acid soil mixture. It is useful to add a little superphosphate or other slow-acting phosphate fertilizers to the mixture (at the rate of 2 tablespoons per 3 l of the mixture). At the bottom of the pot provide good drainage. Clivia is a wonderful hydroponic culture.
Clivia is propagated by seeds and vegetatively.
Clivia seed propagation
The period from pollination of flowers to ripening of clivia fruits lasts 9-10 months; each fruit contains many seeds. Seeds are sown soon after ripening (usually in November-April). The composition of the earthen mixture is as follows: turf - 1 hour, peat - 0.5 hours, sand - 1 hour. In the sowing capacity, clivia seeds are laid out at a distance of 2 × 2 cm. Shoots appear after 4-6 weeks; after the formation of the first leaf, plants are planted in 7-centimeter pots. For 5-6 months, plants form 4-5 leaves.
In the second year, young plants transship in 9-10-centimeter pots, in the third - in 12-13-centimeter. Recommended substrate: turf - 2 hours, humus, peat and sand - 1 hour.
Plants grow slowly - in the second year they form 3-4 pairs of leaves and in the future give 2 pairs of new ones. In the third year, starting in September, clivia is kept in a dry state (dormancy period) for approximately 2 months. After such a departure, about 30% of clivia seedlings bloom: unfinished plants continue to be maintained under the same conditions as in the previous year, providing a dormant period from September of 2 months duration. In the fourth year of culture in winter, plants are kept at a temperature of 10-12 ° C until the apex of the peduncle appears. From this time, they start abundant watering, spraying plants, the temperature is increased to 18-20 ° C.
Vegetative propagation of clivia
At room conditions, it is better to propagate clivia with offspring that are separated from adult plants during transplantation. It must be remembered that clivia has very fragile roots, therefore, during planting and transplantation, they cannot be damaged, they easily rot. At the offspring must be at least 4 leaves. They are separated after flowering and planted for rooting in 7-centimeter pots, in sand, at a temperature of 16-18 ° C. Watering should be moderate, as young plants can easily rot from excess moisture.
Rooted offspring of clivia are transplanted into a mixture of leaf, greenhouse, turf land (1: 1: 1).
Precautions: clivia leaves are poisonous, can cause vomiting, diarrhea, collapse.
Types of clivia
Clivia cinnabar ( Clivia miniata ). Synonym: Vallota mini cinnabar ( Vallota miniata Lindl ). It lives in shady places, rising from the coast to the mountains to an altitude of 600-800 m above sea level, in Natal (South Africa). Plants up to 50 cm tall. The xiphoid leaves, expanded at the base, tapering at the apex, 45-60 cm long and 3.5-6 cm wide. Peduncle 40-50 cm tall, with 10-20 flowers. The flowers are large, on pedicels 2.5-3 cm long, scarlet or red-red, funnel-shaped, with a yellow pharynx; petals 4-5 cm long. It blooms in February and May, less often - at other times of the year.
There are a number of varieties of cinnamon clivia, differing in the color of the flowers, the size of the leaves and the height of the plants.
Clivia Gardena (Clivia gardenii). Grows in shady places in the foothills of the Transvaal, Natal (South Africa). Plants up to 50 cm tall. The leaves are xiphoid, 2.5-4 cm wide, tapering at the apex. Peduncle up to 45 cm tall, carries 10-16 flowers. The flowers are narrow, unevenly bell-shaped; the petals are back-lanceolate, 3-3.2 cm long. It blooms in winter.
Clivia is beautiful (Clivia nobilis). The birthplace of the species is Cape Province (South Africa). Plants 30 cm tall and above. Xiphoid leaves, tapering at the apex, 4-6 cm wide, with sharp edges. Peduncle 30-50 cm tall, with 40-60 flowers; pedicels up to 3 cm long. Perianth curved; funnel-shaped flowers, pale red; petals with a green pointed tip, about 2 cm long.
Diseases and pests of clivia
Scabies - the most common pests of clivia - brown plaques on the surface of leaves and stems, suck out cell juice. Leaves lose their color, dry and fall off.
Control measures . For mechanical cleaning of pests, the leaves are wiped with a soapy sponge. Then the plant should be sprayed with 0.15% solution of Actellik (1-2 ml per liter of water).
Mealybugs : Leaves, shoots, if any, also flowers are affected. Leaves bend, dry and fall, the plant dies.
Control measures . Wipe the plant with a soapy sponge and wash under a warm shower. With a very severe defeat, the plant can be sprayed with a 0.15% actellic solution (1-2 ml per liter of water).
Due to waterlogging of the plants, the tips of the leaves may brown and even rot the base of the stems and roots.
Due to the lowered temperature or lack of moisture during the growth period, the peduncle may be short .
Plants can receive sunburn from direct sunlight, which causes white spots to appear on the leaves .
The absence of shoots of the peduncle and faded leaves of the plant may indicate insufficient nutrition.
If the dormancy period is too short, the room temperature is high, or the light level is low , flowers may not appear on the plant.
We look forward to your advice and comments on growing clivia!